- Sabri Mansouri - Slim Tnani -Olivier Bachelier, "Conception and control of a new hybrid four-level inverter associated
with amulti-source system" Electrical Engineering, Springer, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-020-01104-5
In the recent years, the introduction of an alternative energy such as clean energy has become a major challenge. In this context, several sources of energy are often associated to provide the required energy to the grid. However, output of photovoltaic system and wind turbine is influenced by meteorological conditions. As a result, the power quality exchanged between those sources and the grid might be affected. In this paper, we suggest a new structure of hybrid multi-level inverter in order to solve problems due to the rapid variation of exchanged powers. The main objective of the proposed structure is to limit the sudden fluctuation of injected power into the electrical network via a new structure of multi-level inverter based on
intermediate supercapacitor energy storage. The control strategy of this hybrid inverter applies linear matrix inequalities
technique to control the injected or absorbed currents by the storage system as well as space vector modulation technique
to generate pulses for switches. Presented results highlight the efficiency of the proposed system in suppressing short-term
- Sabri Mansouri - Slim Tnani -Olivier Bachelier , "Integration and control of a multi-task hybrid inverter in renewable energy systems, International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2020, actapress.com
Abstract - The integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is becoming more and more widespread. Frequently, many green energy sources (wind generator, photovoltaic (PV) systems, hydro-electric systems,...) are associated to feed the main grid in order to minimize the intermittent e ect. Thus, maintaining grid's stability is an important
challenge and the integration of storage systems becomes necessary. In this paper the authors present the study and the control of a multi-function PV inverter with an integrated super-capacitors energy storage system (SCESS). This hybrid structure aims to allow the continuity of supplying energy, minimize the short-term power fuctuations on the grid side during transient state and improve grid stability. To achieve these goals, Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approach is used for the controller design. Detailed control strategies and super-capacitors (SC) sizing are described. The
ectiveness of the SCESS in smoothing the power injected to the grid is experimentally validated.
- Somesh Bhattacharya, Brian Azzopardi, Renata Mikalauskiene, Vibhu Jately, and Brian Bartolo, "Energy-Water Nexus for a Comfort Maltese Households Using PVs," IEEE-PVSC, Presented, June 2020
Abstract- A load shifting strategy for the heat pump load (HPL), powered by both utility and the PV, is proposed in this paper. The heat pump is an energy-intensive device, and the cost of electricity from the grid can be minimized with the proposed load shifting approach by strategically shifting both the baseload and the HPL towards the PV peak, so that the cost during the daytime is reduced. To achieve this purpose in the Maltese context, the heat pump was modeled in the heating mode based on the ambient temperature and the thermal energy delivered. It was observed that with the actual data of the PVs and the existing load, the thermal energy storage can be achieved with self-consumption from PVs.
- Florides, G. Makrides, and G. E. Georghiou, “Early Detection of Potential Induced Degradation by Measurement of the Forward DC Resistance in Crystalline PV Cells,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 942–950, 2019.
Abstract: Potential induced degradation (PID) is still a serious threat for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and it is expected to aggravate due to the tendency to increase the operating voltage of PV systems. Therefore, a method which can detect PID at an infant stage is necessary in order to increase the reliability of PV systems and preserve their lifetime. This paper provides a pathway (proof of concept) for the early and reliable detection of PID, by using the forward dc resistance (FDCR) of a PV cell since it is a parameter, which is affected by the cell's shunt resistance ( Rsh ), which in turn is heavily affected by PID before any significant power loss occurs, and could act as a PID detection mechanism. The paper presents simulation results, which examine at which forward bias conditions the FDCR has to be measured for the purpose of using it as a PID detection means at an early stage (<1% power loss). The simulation examined the FDCR variation with shunt resistance, reverse dark saturation current ( I0 ), and ideality factor (n). Furthermore, an experiment was performed to verify the simulation results, demonstrating detection before 2% power loss occurs.
- A. Espírito-Santo, P.D. Serra, S. Abrósio, R. J. C. Pinto
Title: Water pH Monitoring with a Smart Sensor Powered by a Thermoelectric Generator with a Phase-Change Material
Conference: 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) - IECON2019, Lisbon, Portugal, from October 14 to 17, 2019.
Abstract: The quality of water supplied to the human populations should be under continuous monitorization to detect possible threats to the consumer or infrastructure. The measurement of water’s pH allows to conclude about water quality. Solar thermal energy harvesting and consequent conversion into electrical energy, after properly regulated, allows to power an intelligent sensor to measure the pH values of water. The adoption of the IEEE1451 standard allows the smart sensor, through the services provided by this standard, integrate a sensor network and cooperate with other elements of the network to maximize the functionality and overall efficiency of the water distribution system.
P.D. Serra, A. Espírito-Santo, J. Bonifácio, S. F. Relvas
Title: Capacitive Level Smart Sensors in the Management of Wastewater Treatment Processes
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics - INDIN19, 22-25 July 2019, Helsinki-Espoo, Finland
Abstract: Collecting information on wastewater treatment processes is critical to the efficiency of the treatment system. Detecting the water level inside of a macrophyte constructed wetlands, using a capacitive sensing element, allows knowing the operating state and efficiency of this infrastructure. The energy independence of the smart sensor is achieved through a microbial fuel cell that, by using the wastewater’s organic matter, allows it to operate indefinitely, avoiding a battery element and the associated replacement tasks. At the same time, integration of the smart sensor into a transducer network, observing the IEEE1451 standard, contributes to improve interoperability promoting cooperation among wastewater treatment subsystems.
P.D. Serra, A. Espírito-Santo, M. Magrinho
Title: A steady-state electrical model of a Microbial Fuel Cell through multiple-cycle polarization curves
Journal: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
Abstract: The use of Microbial Fuel Cells as power sources in rural or remote locations can solve issues related with power availability and wastewater cleaning. Furthermore, the application of such technology in wireless smart sensors applied to wastewater treatment plants can also help in water quality monitoring, increasing the process autonomy and reliability. A trustworthy power source needs to have a predictable and repeatable behavior, which cannot be achieved without adequate models and supporting hardware for energy regulation and storage. The work herein described proposes a steady-state model, represented by an electric circuit made of passive components. This model was first applied to a specific 28 mL air-cathode Microbial Fuel Cells working with artificial wastewater and using graphite brush anodes. Afterwards, the model was further validated by applying it to a larger reactor and to other bibliographic records. The goal of the study is to propose a method for finding a Microbial Fuel Cell model to be used with maximum power point tracking research, guaranteeing the best-case scenario for Microbial Fuel Cell operation as a power source. The reactors used in this study were analyzed by relating time and voltage development, both in colonization and in polarization studies. A mathematical relationship model was developed and proposed allowing to separate MFC’s behavior, concerning energy production, in to meaningful components. From the experimental data the method was used to obtain a two-component circuit model that describes the power behavior of this specific Microbial Fuel Cell topology. The same method can be used to described other MFC.
- Cherif, A. Saffa, J. Belhadj, S. Hlioui, M. Gabsi, “Design and performance investigation of small scale wind turbine system based on hybrid excited flux switching machine,” in 2019 3rd International Conference on Advanced Systems and Emergent Technologies (IC_ASET'2019), March 2019, Tunisia, pp. 1–6.
- Khlifi, H. Cherif, J. Belhadj, “Sizing and multi-objective optimization of a multisource micro-grid with storage for an industrial district,” in 2019 3rd International Conference on Advanced Systems and Emergent Technologies (IC_ASET'2019), March 2019, Tunisia, pp. 1–6.
- Florides, A. Livera, G. Makrides, and G. E. Georghiou, “Shunt Resistance Relation to Power Loss due to Potential Induced Degradation in Crystalline Photovoltaic Cells,” in 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2019, pp. 1950-1954
Abstract: Potential Induced Degradation (PID) is expected to become more frequent with the increased system voltage of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Thus, a PID detection method is required to detect PID at an early stage in order to increase the reliability of PV systems and the lifetime of PV modules. In this paper, a relation between the shunt resistance and the power loss of a PV cell due to PID is derived for the development of a detection model from cell to module level. The results indicate a logarithmic relationship. In addition, a shunt resistance threshold, at which significant power loss starts to appear, is derived. The threshold is examined for various power loss levels and temperatures. The threshold was found to decrease with temperature with a near linear behaviour.
- Florides, A. Livera, G. Makrides, and G. E. Georghiou, “Characterisation of the Reverse DC Resistance due to Potential Induced Degradation (PID) in Crystalline PV Cells,” in 36th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 2019, pp. 1050–1053.
Abstract: The measurement of the reverse DC resistance (RDCR) is employed by many researchers to approximate the shunt resistance (Rsh) and monitor PID progression. Its behaviour with PID progression and temperature at different PID stages is unknown. This requires the detailed characterisation of the RDCR at various bias conditions and temperatures to study whether when measured at different reverse bias conditions it affects the PID progression monitoring rate.
- Florides, G. Makrides, and G. E. Georghiou, “Characterisation of the Shunt Resistance due to Potential Induced Degradation (PID) in Crystalline Solar Cells,” in 7th IEEE World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2018, pp. 0695-0699.
Abstract: Different solutions have been proposed for the detection of potential induced degradation (PID), however, none of them has been proven reliable and cost effective so far. Therefore, a detection mechanism is required in the field to warn users for PID development. This paper provides a pathway for the early and reliable detection of PID under outdoor conditions, by characterising the shunt resistance (R sh ) of a solar cell since it is a parameter, which is heavily affected by PID before any significant power occurs and could act as a PID detection mechanism. The paper presents results on the characterisation of the shunt resistance at different PID degradation levels and temperatures in an attempt to assess its potential use as a PID detection means.
Florides, G. Makrides, and G. E. Georghiou, “Early Potential Induced Degradation (PID) Detection in the Field: Solar Cell Shunt Resistance Measurement at Different Bias Conditions,” in 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 2018, pp. 1157–1160.
Abstract: Potential Induced Degradation (PID) is still a serious threat for the PV industry and it is expected to get worse with the trend to increase the operating voltage of PV systems. Therefore, a detection method which can detect PID at an infant stage is necessary in order to increase the reliability of PV and preserve their lifetime. In this paper a PID detection method based on the solar cell shunt resistance is presented. A simulation shows at which bias conditions the shunt resistance has to be measured in order to detect PID before 1% power is lost. The simulation results are then verified by experimental measurements.
- A. R. Silva, F. Charrua-Santos, A. Espírito-Santo, J. C. P. Marques, C. M. S. Fael
Title: Study of a Water-Energy Integrated System: Challenges of PrototypingConference: International Conference on Energy and Sustainability in Small Developing Economies - ES2DE18, Madeira, Portugal, from July 9 to 11, 2018.
Abstract: In a society where Energy and Water walk side by side in practically all sectors of activity, it becomes necessary to analyze them from a productive, economic and sustainable point of view. Although independently developed and regulated, it is known that water needs energy and energy needs water. The increasing demand for energy and its exponential trend will have repercussions at all levels in the short term. and consequently, will increase the strain on freshwater resources. All these concerns and associated decision-making policies create an opportunity to improve the management of both sectors. There is an urgent need to improve the water-energy system and reduce energy consumption, using advanced technological changes and an optimized management strategy, leading to a more sustainable future. By improving the efficiency of water and energy use through integrated smart strategies, there are very positive repercussions on savings and impact on the local economy, especially in decentralized cases. The present paper aims to address the theme of the nexus of water-energy in the scope of promoting alternatives of management and development of integrated systems and study the dynamics of the development of the theoretical concept vs. prototyping in case of urban context and real environment.
Antonio Espirito-Santo, Bruno Ribeiro, Mr. Cesar Lima, Mr. Joel Bonifacio, Ms. Sofia Ambrosio, Self-Powered Smart Sensors in the Management of Water Infrastructures, IEEE 16th International Conference Of Industrial Informatics Indin2018, 18-20 July 2018 Porto-Portugal
Ms. Ana Silva, ICOVI, Dr. Fernando Santos, Dr. António Espírito-Santo, Dr. José Páscoa Marques, Dr. Cristina Fael, Development of the Concept vs Prototyping: Implementation of a real scale Water-Energy Integrated System, IEEE 16th International Conference Of Industrial Informatics Indin2018, 18-20 July 2018 Porto-Portugal
Abstract: Currently, the concept of smart cities and renewable energy are more consolidated and developed. With each passing day, new technological advances are emerging within both themes. At the same time, the water sector has becoming increasingly demanding in terms of quality and compliance with all existing legislation. That said, it is understandable that both sectors and their management entities come together in search of more sustainable operations that go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, decentralization of energy production and the improvement of efficiency, quality and use of resources. It is important to understand the synergies between water and energy to contradict what has been said so far about the increasing demand for energy, its exponential trend and the negative repercussions on freshwater resources. As such, this article aims to address the interconnection between both sectors to promote alternative scientific and technological improvements to the management and development of Integrated Water-Energy systems, while studying the dynamics between the theoretical development of the problem and the challenges of prototyping of such complex systems in real and urban context.
Sabri MANSOURI - Slim TNANI - Olivier BACHELIER , A multi-function hybrid inverter for PV system applications, IEEE 16th International Conference Of Industrial Informatics Indin2018, 18-20 July 2018 Porto-Portugal
Sabri MANSOURI - Slim TNANI - Olivier BACHELIER, Modelling and control of a new hybrid compensator for grid power fluctuations, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, 20-22 February 2018, Lyon-France
Habib CHERIF - Slim TNANI – Jamel BELHAJ – Ana Rita SILVA, Optimal sizing and technical evaluation of energy and water system based on micro-hydric solar and wind sources, IEEE 16th International Conference Of Industrial Informatics Indin2018, 18-20 July 2018 Porto-Portugal
- Cherif and J. Belhadj, “Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Water Desalination Processes,” in Sustainable Desalination Handbook, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 527–559.
- Zaibi, H. Cherif, G. Champenois, B. Sareni, X. Roboam, and J. Belhadj, “Sizing methodology based on design of experiments for freshwater and electricity production from multi-source renewable energy systems,” Desalination, vol. 446, pp. 94–103, Nov. 2018.
I. Ben Ali, M. Turki, J. Belhadj, and X. Roboam, “Optimized fuzzy rule-based energy management for a battery-less PV/wind-BWRO desalination system,” Energy, vol. 159, pp. 216–228, Sep. 2018.
- Khiari, M. Turki, J. Belhadj, “Robust DC-Bus Voltage Control for Batteryless Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis Desalination Prototype Operating with Variable Wind and Solar Irradiation,” International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 8, pp. 1544-1552, Sep. 2018.
- Affi, H. Cherif, J. Belhadj. "Size optimization based on design of experiments of a water desalination process supplied by hybrid PV/Wind system with battery storage," Symposium De Génie Electrique (SGE 2018), Nancy France, 3-5 Juillet 2018, pp. 1–7
- Elena Pieri, Andreas Kyprianou, Alexandros Phinikarides, Georgios Makrides, George E, Georghiou, “Forecasting degradation rates of different photovoltaic systems using Robust Principal Component Analysis and ARIMA” IET Renewable Power Generation, May 2017Abstract: Degradation rates based on forecasting of performance ratio, R p , time series are computed and compared with actual degradation rates. A 3-year forecasting of monthly Rp , measured from photovoltaic (PV) connected systems of various technologies is performed using the seasonal auto-regressive integrating moving average (ARIMA) time series model. The seasonal ARIMA model is estimated using monthly R p measured over a 5-year period and based on this model forecasting is implemented for the subsequent 3 years. The degradation rate at the end of the forecasting period, eighth year, is computed using a robust principal component analysis based methodology. The degradation rates obtained for various (PV) systems are then compared with the ones obtained using the actual 8-year data.
A. R. Silva, F. Charrua-Santos, A. Espírito-Santo, J. C. P. Marques, C. M. S. FaelTitle: Water-Energy Nexus: Review of Literature in Management of Integrated Systems, Challenges and Opportunities. Case Study in Urban Context
Conference: International Congress on Engineering - ICEUBI2017, Covilhã, Portugal, from December 5 to 7, 2017.
Abstract: In a society where Energy and Water walk side by side in practically all sectors of activity, it becomes necessary to analyze them from a productive, economic and sustainable point of view. From the extraction of mines and wells, to its treatment and transportation, and to the cooling systems of energy production, and despite being independently developed, managed and regulated, it is known that water needs energy and energy needs water. All these concerns, decision-making and the relationship between water and energy by itself create an opportunity to improve management in both sectors. There is an urgent need to consider all the assumptions and alternatives to improve the system and reduce energy consumption, which includes technological modifications and optimized resources management, leading to a more sustainable future. The increasing demand for energy and its exponential trend will have repercussions at all levels and will consequently increase the strain on freshwater resources with the most affected agricultural and industrial sectors. By improving the efficiency of water and energy use, there are positive repercussions that allow for substantial savings, especially where there is a lack of such resources. This article aims to address all these crucial issues related to energy and water in order to increase knowledge on the subject and to help promote alternatives for managing and developing integrated management systems and, consequently, for a rational use of both resources and a more sustainable future.
Sustainable Development in Energy Systems, Book, Editor Brian Azzopardi, Springer, 2017https://books.google.fr/books?id=clU0DwAAQBAJ&pg=PP9&dq=edgewise.ubi.pt&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV-9XpgereAhVP1hoKHQTKDmAQ6AEINjAB#v=onepage&q=edgewise.ubi.pt&f=false
- Fezai and J. Belhadj, “Sizing optimization of a stand-alone photovoltaic system using genetic algorithm,” in 2017 18th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA), Monastir, 2017, pp. 499–504.
- Dali, A. Ben rhouma, J. Belhadj, “Design and Energy management for Power Generation system in Remote Areas Using Renewable Energies with Battery Storage,” in Scientific Days of Medjerda (SDMed2017), ESIER Medjez el Bab, October 2017, pp. 1–7.
- W. Khiari, M. Turki, J. Belhadj, “The effect of energy fluctuation on performances of a Reverse Osmosis desalination system fed with intermittent renewable source,” in Scientific Days of Medjerda (SDMed2017), ESIER Medjez el Bab, October 2017, pp. 1–7.
KHIARI W, TURKI M, BELHADJ J. Synthesis and practical implementation of integrated control system for freshwater production unit fed by renewable source without battery. ELECTRIMACS France 2017
BEN RHOUMA A, BELHADJ J, ROBOAM X. Energy management and control strategy for water pumping system fed by intermittent renewable sources. ELECTRIMACS France 2017
KHLIFI F, BELHADJ J. Smoothing power in microgrid by fast storage of electrical energy. GECS Tunisia 2017
- Fezai S, BELHADJ J. Load profile impact on a stand-alone photovoltaic system. 7th International RenewableEnergyCongress (IREC), Tunisia 2016
KHIARI W, TURKI M, BELHADJ J. Prototype expérimental d’un système de dessalement par osmose inverse alimenté par une source renouvelable intermittente sans stockage électrochimique « Conception et caractérisation pour la gestion Energie-Eau ». CISTEM Tunisia 2016
CHERIF H, BELHADJ J. Synthesis and interest in hybridization of autonomous renewable multi-source systems under constraints of embodied energy GHG emissions life cycle cost and loss of power supply probability. International Conference on Recent Advances in Electrical Systems (ICRAES), Tunisia, 2016
DIOP M, KHIARI W, THIAW L, TURKI M, BELHADJ J. Characterization and control of a craft mill driven by induction motor fed by photovoltaic mini-grid. ICRAES Tunisia 2016